How to Quote in an Essay

The first is to present your interpretation of findings and then follow with a quotation to illustrate your description. This gives the reader the information to judge whether or not your interpretation represents the data. A briefer quotation may be more powerful and much more relevant to your argument. If you think the participant is implying something, suggest this in your interpretive commentary. Chicago style in-text citations can follow the in-text citation system, like APA format.

Using direct quotes in your writing improves your work and shows evidence of research and ideas in your assessments. Here, we explore how to use different quotes in your assessments. Campbell refers to an angle as a “perspective that dominates a story”. In our study, research and writing was reported as always being guided by an angle. It was described as a “thrust” or “driving force” of an assignment – the new “twist” or “hook” that directs the story.

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My quotation, however, does not make this clear, and so I have inserted the necessary information enclosed insquare brackets. President Kennedy famously exclaimed “Ich bin ein Berliner!”Madonna is fond of declaring “I’m not ashamed of anything.””The only emperor”, writes Wallace Stevens, “is the emperor of ice cream.”Look closely at these examples.

  1. Don’t forget to also add regular citations for the sources to your bibliography at the end of the paper.
  2. Referencing an author who’s referencing an author whose work isn’t available?
  3. YesNoPlacement of the full-stop.Inside the closing quotation markOutside the closing quotationIs the quotation a full sentence in its own right?
  4. Imagine the scenes when your near-perfect essay gets marked down a grade for a shoddy reference list.
  5. Direct quotes are useful for defining or describing specific concepts, whereas paraphrasing or summarising information from other sources shows that you understand the content and general idea.
  6. This paper demonstrated that libraries need to proactively engage users in this debate.

However, even though they admitted having difficulties in writing, they were actively seeking for ways in which to improve their ability to write and their capacity for self-regulation. From their perspective a crisis was anything that had to be done urgently, taking time away from the work that they would have “normally” done to make progress on their individual deliverables. Always attempt to contextualise quotations (Where did she say this? Who else was present? What question was she answering? What did she say before this? How does it relate to your overall argument?). Comment on the quotation by comparing it to other quotations from the same person, other quotationss from different people on the same topic, etc. You may also edit minor linguistic inaccuracies to facilitate reading, but if you decide to do so, you should note this clearly at the first occurrence or in the method section (Dornyei, 2007, p. 297). Record exactly what is said, by whom, plus some indication of tone, pauses, body language, etc, if necessary. Remember that one hour of recording can take 6-10 hours of transcription time.

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In the following extract one journalist relates this idea to the tragic events of the 11 September. If what does 600 words look like your data is mainly qualitative, it is important to include quotations from this data in your text.

This is called secondary referencing (or ‘referenceception to us), and should be avoided wherever possible. Quotations from cases, statutes, books and journals must always be exactly as they are in the original source.

OSCOLA referencing guide Online: Quotations

In APA format, in-text citations can follow a direct quote or paraphrased information. For direct quotes, the in-text citation should immediately follow. If you’re citing a book, the in-text citation will usually include the author’s surname, the year of publication and the relevant page number or numbers, enclosed by parentheses. You need to provide a citation whenever you refer to an idea that you derived from a source. This how to introduce quotes is the case whether you use a direct quote, a paraphrase, or even just a direct or indirect mention. You need to include abrief citation in the text at the place where you refer to the source, and afull citation in your bibliography or reference list. The style of referencing you are using will dictate which details you include in your citations, how you signpost brief citations , and what order you put information in.

  1. A human baby already has 100 billion neurons at birth, along with ten times as many other brain cells.
  2. You need to provide a citation whenever you refer to an idea that you derived from a source.
  3. As a general guideline, quotes should take up no more than 5–10% of your paper.
  4. If text is removed from a quotation for reasons of clarity and length or if it ends mid-sentence in the original text, use an ellipsis (…) to indicate that some of the original text is missing.
  5. This is what it means to live beyond “the end of nature” – that it is human action that will determine the climate of the future, not systems beyond our control.
  6. There are times when you need to make small edits to quotations to make them work out of context, remove unnecessary information, add emphasis or acknowledge errors.

Note that opening or closing a paragraph or assignment with a quote is not good style in university-level writing. An easy way to check this is to highlight all your citations, then check that each has been discussed. Look out for a balanced mix of statements, evidence (e.g. references) and analysis. Students often worry that including a citation for every idea they have got from their reading will make their work look like it is unoriginal and derivative – just a string of other people’s ideas.

Referencing & Plagiarism Awareness: 3 How to insert citations into your assignment.

This is achieved by a mixture of quoting, paraphrasing and summarising the work of the authors you read or the official documents you use. This page has sections looking at what each of these mean; and when and how you should use each technique. If you want to insert words into a quote you can add square brackets around the additional text but remember the sentence must make grammatical sense. It is important to use square brackets and not round brackets around the extra text because this indicates that this is your addition and not the authors. Put quotation marks around the quote and include within a standard-format paragraph of your text. Include any italics and errors of spelling or punctuation found in the original.

  1. When you make notes during your module, make sure that you record the source of any good quotes you come across.
  2. The quote used in the above example is not the beginning of the original sentence.
  3. If you add a word of your own in the middle of a quotation for clarity, then put square brackets around it.
  4. The exact format of a quote depends on its length and on which citation style you are using.
  5. How to paraphrase Learn how to express the source you’re reading in your own words to highlight your learning.
  6. This method allows you to use quotations in a precise way and select evidence carefully.

You will need to reference them in a similar way to paraphrasing – but if you have summarised a whole source you will not need to give a page number even if your style usually uses them for paraphrased text. If you have summarised a shorter section, from 1 or 2 pages, you should use page numbers if it is required for paraphrases. Example 1 shows in-text citations in Harvard and Example 2 shows them as footnote markers. Please note that for some disciplines using Harvard you may be required to give page numbers in your in-text citations for paraphrased text – please check with your lecturers. Footnote references always give page numbers for paraphrased text.

Shortening or altering a quote

See the examples at the bottom of the Quotingtab for how to include page numbers. The student has distinguished the words of the source from his or her own using single quotation marks, and has acknowledged the source with a parenthetical citation. In this example, the author has acknowledged his indebtedness to ‘Neville’ with a citation in brackets, and has clearly differentiated the words of the source from his own with single quotation marks. Quotation is one way to incorporate what you’ve read into your writing. If you use someone else’s words in your assignment, it is crucial to mark them clearly as a quotation and give a reference to the source. It’s also important to understand how to make quotations work effectively to support your argument. Use single quotation marks ‘ ‘ to enclose the quoted words of a short quotation.

Using citations also shows that you can work within a set of rules and use what you’ve learned in the course to produce your own research. If text is removed from a quotation for reasons of clarity and length or if it ends mid-sentence in the original text, use an ellipsis (…) to indicate that some of the original text is missing. Leave the joy of reading and writing superman and me essay a space between an ellipsis and any text or punctuation, except quotation marks. Summarising shows you are reading critically and able to pick out which points from a source are relevant to the argumentyouare making. Like paraphrasing, it shows that you have understood the information and are able to express it in your own writing style.

Supporting an argument: Illustrating and exemplifying ideas

While APA style citation is mostly used in science and education, MLA style is mostly used in the humanities field. If how to use a quote in an introduction paragraph you are unsure whether your source is common knowledge or not, it is better to cite it using a footnote or an endnote.

Note first that what is enclosed in quotes must be the exact words of the person being quoted. Anything which is not part of those exact words must be placed outside the quotes, even if, as in the last example, this means using two sets of quotes because the quotation has been interrupted. For more complex direct quotes, examples are provided under the specific sources within the MMU Harvard section of this guide. Check with your module tutor if you need advice and be consistent with the use of single or double quotation marks throughout your piece of work.

How to Quote in an Essay

If you are summarising a journal article, you can start with the abstract – after all that is usually the author’s own summary of their work. For chapters in edited books, the editors often give a summary of the chapters in their introduction. You should not use this instead of reading the whole source, but it is a good first place to look as you can get an idea what the author/editor thinks is important. It is an essential process to learn – indeed one which your tutors expect you to perform so that you can provideevidence of appropriate readingand of yourunderstandingof that knowledge. The risk, of course, is that of plagiarism – if your version of a published text bears too close a resemblance to the original wording. Simply altering one or two words in the original isnot enough; your version should bedistinctfrom the original. Indent the quotation in its own paragraph and leave out the quotation marks.

  1. Try to summarise sources in most of your work and use direct quotes when they’ll have a strong impact.
  2. OSCOLA originated from Oxford University and is used for Law or Law-related disciplines.
  3. Some subjects also use quotation more frequently to represent the views of other scholars which they then critique.
  4. The table below lists some of the differences between Chicago and MLA styles.
  5. Only when she was thirty-one did a disbelieving doctor…prescribe for her a hearing aid.
  6. Every in-text citation should also correspond to a full reference at the end of your paper.

It was helpful to learn about how to organize my writing based on the structure of the recount genre. (…) And I also felt like reading examples of this kind of writing because I that way I can learn various expressions through reading that will help me write better. Because I had no tools to refer to for email writing, I was very much afraid of email-writing activities when this course started. However, as I learned a variety of contexts for using the words that I had already known, I realized that email writing is not as difficult as had first thought. Above all, I found it very interesting to get a response from the reader of my email about what I wrote. This inspired me to write more and communicate more without being afraid of making mistakes.

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